(2011)[59] did not. [179] Members of the monocot subfamily Amaryllidoideae present a unique type of alkaloids, the norbelladine alkaloids, which are 4-methylcatechol derivatives combined with tyrosine. [146] This was a period when the development of exotic formal gardens and parks was becoming popular, particularly in what is known as the "Oriental Period" (1560–1620). [4] While most species flower in late winter to spring, five species are autumn flowering ( N. broussonetii , N. cavanillesii , N. elegans , N. serotinus , N. viridiflorus ). Umbellate species have a fleshy racemose inflorescence (unbranched, with short floral stalks) with 2 to 15 or 20 flowers, such as N. papyraceus (see illustration, left) and N. tazetta (see Table I). [71][81] The reason for the introduction of the initial "d" is not known. The toxicity of Narcissus varies with species, N. poeticus being more toxic than N. pseudonarcissus, for instance. The Greek poet Stasinos mentioned them in the Cypria amongst the flowers of Cyprus. The testa is black[8] and the pericarp dry.[12]. fertilized by an outside source in order to create While the perianth may point forwards, in some species such as N. cyclamineus it is folded back (reflexed, see illustration, left), while in some other species such as N. bulbocodium (Table I), it is reduced to a few barely visible pointed segments with a prominent corona. [106][126] The larvae of some moths such as Korscheltellus lupulina (the common swift moth) attack Narcissus bulbs. transported by wind or animals to a new location. adaptation page. a plant like Narcissus pseudonarcissus. [5] By the beginning of the twentieth century 50 million bulbs of N. Tazetta "Paperwhite" were being exported annually from the Netherlands to the United States. [141] The only large-scale production at that time related to the double narcissus "Van Sion" and cultivars of N. tazetta imported in 1557. In Germany the wild narcissus, N. pseudonarcissus, is known as the Osterglocke or "Easter bell." [76] The name Narcissus was not uncommon for men in Roman times. For a while Narcissus was considered part of Liliaceae (as in the illustration seen here of Narcissus candidissimus),[35][36][37] but then the Amaryllidaceae were split off from it. The flowers of Narcissus demonstrate exceptional floral diversity and sexual polymorphism,[15] primarily by corona size and floral tube length, associated with pollinator groups (see for instance Figs. [59] Section Pseudonarcissus, although widely naturalised is endemic to the Baetic Ranges of the southeastern Iberian peninsula.[16]. This eliminates infestations by narcissus fly and nematodes. [149] Another German source at this time was Peter Lauremberg who gives an account of the species known to him and their cultivation in his Apparatus plantarius: de plantis bulbosis et de plantis tuberosis (1632).[150]. [59] Narcissus appears to have arisen in the area of the Iberian peninsula, southern France and northwestern Italy. While infrageneric groupings within Narcissus have been relatively constant, their status (genera, subgenera, sections, subsections, series, species) has not. The remaining sections within subgenus Narcissus include both lowland and mountain habitats. Its shape is from an inverted cone (obconic) to funnel-shaped (funneliform) or cylindrical, and is surmounted by the more distal corona. [17], Genus valde intricatum et numerosissimis dubiis oppressum A genus that is very complex and burdened with numerous uncertainties, The genus Narcissus was well known to the ancients. [212] He refers to Sophocles' "crown of the great Goddesses", which is the source of the English phrase "Chaplet of the infernal Gods" incorrectly attributed to Socrates. pass on their genes. [20], The eventual position of Narcissus within the Amaryllidaceae family only became settled in this century with the advent of phylogenetic analysis and the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group system. Narcissi became an important horticultural crop in Western Europe in the latter part of the nineteenth century, beginning in England between 1835 and 1855 and the end of the century in the Netherlands. The flies lay their eggs at the end of June in the ground around the narcissi, a single female fly being able to lay up to fifty eggs. The leaf base is encased in a colourless sheath. Although there is no clear evidence that the flower's name derives directly from the Greek myth, this link between the flower and the myth became firmly part of western culture. The French used the flowers as an antispasmodic, the Arabs the oil for baldness and also an aphrodisiac. They are one of the most popular spring flowers[165] and one of the major ornamental spring flowering bulb crops, being produced both for their bulbs and cut flowers, though cultivation of private and public spaces is greater than the area of commercial production. [20] A few species extend the range into southern France, Italy, the Balkans (N. poeticus, N. serotinus, N. tazetta), and the Eastern Mediterranean (N. serotinus)[20][4] including Israel (N. [16] In Germany, which has relatively little limestone, Narcissus pseudonarcissus grows in small groups on open mountain meadows or in mixed forests of fir, beech, oak, alder, ash and birch trees with well-drained soil. [157], The narcissus appears in two Graeco-Roman myths, that of the youth Narcissus who was turned into the flower of that name, and of the Goddess Persephone snatched into the Underworld by the god Hades while picking the flowers. [170], The commonest form of commercial propagation is by twin-scaling, in which the bulbs are cut into many small pieces but with two scales still connected by a small fragment of the basal plate. daffodils will grow from the transplanted bulbs. Blue mould rot of bulbs may be caused by infection with species of Penicillium, if they have become damaged either through mechanical injury or infestation by mites (see below). Magna cura non indigent NarcissiMost easy of cultivation is the Narcissus, N. serotinus, John Gerard, The Herball 1597, N. poeticus, Thomas Hale, Eden: Or, a Compleat Body of Gardening 1757, Narcissi, John Parkinson, Paradisus Terrestris 1629. or dagger nematodes) and the stubby-root nematodes or trichodorids (Paratrichodorus spp. [83][84], Although the family Amaryllidaceae are predominantly tropical or subtropical as a whole, Narcissus occurs primarily in Mediterranean region, with a centre of diversity in the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal). I gaz'd – and gaz'd – but little thought For instance that of the Westfälischer Meister in Köln in the Wallraf-Richartz-Museum, Cologne,[254] where daffodils symbolise not only death but also hope in the resurrection, because they are perennial and bloom at Easter. Recovery is usually complete in a few hours without any specific intervention. The spathe consists of a singular bract that is ribbed, and which remains wrapped around the base of the open flower. They have wide greenish floral tubes with funnel shaped bright yellow coronas. Other Greek authors making reference to the narcissus include Sophocles and Plutarch. [4] The main species used in breeding are N. bulbocodium, N. cyclamineus, N. jonquilla, N. poeticus, N. pseudonarcissus, N. serotinus and N. The three outer tepal segments may be considered sepals, and the three inner segments petals. A busy and exciting time at DutchGrown. A homeopathic medicine made from bulbs was prescribed for bronchitis and whooping cough. tiny black seeds are dry and ready for dispersal. [11][22] Plant breeders have developed some daffodils with double, triple, or ambiguously multiple rows and layers of segments. [70] Pliny wrote that the plant was named for its fragrance (ναρκάω narkao, "I grow numb" ), not the youth. [260][261][262] In contrast to the West, narcissi have not played a significant part in Chinese Garden art,[263] however, Zhao Mengjian in the Southern Song Dynasty was noted for his portrayal of narcissi. the stigma and fertilizes the ovules of the plant, Sophocles, in Oedipus at Colonus utilises narcissus in a symbolic manner, implying fertility,[209] allying it with the cults of Demeter and her daughter Kore (Persephone),[210] and by extension, a symbol of death. The species are native to meadows and woods in southern Europe and North Africa with a centre of diversity in the Western Mediterranean, particularly the Iberian peninsula. For instance, the slopes around Montreux, Switzerland and its associated riviera come alive with blooms each May (May Snow) at the annual Narcissi Festival. ~, Copyright © Danielle Cook, designed by Alpha Studio. The number of species has varied, depending on how they are classified, due to similarity between species and hybridisation. Up to 60 layers have been counted in some wild species. [181], Many cases of poisoning or death have occurred when narcissi bulbs have been mistaken for leeks or onions and cooked and eaten. It is likely that the traditional use of narcissi for the treatment of cancer was due to the presence of isocarbostyril constituents such as narciclasine, pancratistatin and their congeners. To learn more about a daffodil's poison, visit the facts page. Florists require blooms that only open when they reach the retail outlet. The cultivars so produced tend to be larger and more robust than the wild types. [36][37] The situation was confused by the inclusion of many unknown or garden varieties, and it was not till the work of Baker that the wild species were all grouped as sections under one genus, Narcissus. Daffodil breeding has introduced a wide range of colours, in both the outer perianth tepal segment and the inner corona. The optimal temperature for initiation is 20 °C followed by cooling to 13 °C.[5]. narcissi) responsible for green mold. [175] More than 27,000 names were registered as of 2008,[175] and the number has continued to grow. [47], A common classification system has been that of Fernandes [52][53][54] based on cytology, as modified by Blanchard (1990)[55][56] and Mathew (2002). [92][133], Gastropods such as snails and slugs also cause damage to growth. The flower stem and leaves form in the bulb, to emerge the following season. For daffodils to flower at the end of the winter or early spring, bulbs are planted in autumn (September–November). [285] Festivals are also held in many other countries. [106][130][131][132] Other nematodes include Aphelenchoides subtenuis, which penetrates the roots causing basal plate disease[129][133] and Pratylenchus penetrans (lesion nematode) the main cause of root rot in narcissi. Another exception is N. cuatrecasasii which produces mainly fatty acid derivatives. [106][107][108], Bacterial disease is uncommon in Narcissus but includes Pseudomonas (bacterial streak) and Pectobacterium carotovorum sp. can then be cut or peeled away from Narcissus The flowers are pendent. (8. [102][94] NDV is associated with chlorotic leaf striping in N. Micropropagation methods are not used for commercial production but are used for establishing commercial stock. 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